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How To Research

Information for students and faculty about the Research Process.

The CRAAP test: Is my source credible?

The CRAAP test is a list of guiding questions to ask yourself when evaluating your sources.

The criteria will help you determine the credibility of any source of information. Depending on your subject area, some criteria may be less important than others (e.g. currency when looking at Math resources).


Currency: The timeliness of the information

  • Do you know when the information was published, posted, or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study?


Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs

  • Is the information appropriate for a college-level course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth discussion of the topic?
  • Has Canadian perspective or content been provided? (Is this appropriate for your topic?)


Authority: The source of the information

  • Have the author's credentials or organizational affiliations been identified?
  • Is the author (or authors) qualified to write on the topic?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organization?


Accuracy: The reliability and correctness of the informational content

  • Have the author's sources been clearly cited so that you can easily find (and verify) them?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?


Purpose: The reason the information exists

  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Adapted from: The University of the Fraser Valley (2009). Evaluating information: The CRAAP test. Retrieved from


Evaluating Sources by Western Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License:

Is my source scholarly?

You might be asked to use scholarly sources for your assignment, but how can you tell what's scholarly or not? This list will help you to identify if the sources you have found are scholarly.


  • Written by researchers, professionals, or experts in the field
  • Author's credentials are listed


  • Advanced reading level
  • Researchers, students, academics, and professionals

Language & Length:

  • Specialized or technical vocabulary
  • Topic is narrowly focused and research-based
  • Long articles: 5+ pages

Review Process:

  • "Peer-reviewed" or "refereed" articles are screened and approved by other researchers and experts in the field


  • Often a specific format: e.g., Abstract, Methodology, Discussion, Summary, Charts, Conclusion
  • Descriptive titles
  • Limited or no advertising

Location of Information:

  • Scientific, medical, and research institutions, libraries
  • In print and online at RDC Library

Citations & Bibliography:

  • Extensive bibliography and citations throughout
  • Sources can be verified


  • Journal of Botany, Journal of Canadian Studies, Journal of Clinical Nursing, Educational & Child Psychology


Prefer to watch videos or like to look at visuals? Take a look at these resources to learn more about scholarly sources:

What does "Peer Reviewed" mean?

Peer review is a process in which an article is screened and evaluated by a panel of experts before it is published. Reviewers will evaluate the article for quality, credibility, and accuracy.

Usually a journal is peer-reviewed when:

  • It is published or sponsored by a professional scholarly society or association.
  • It has a list of reviewers or an editorial board of experts listed on the journal's website.

If you have found your article online in an article database, the database may indicate if an article is peer-reviewed. You can do an Internet search for your journal's name to see if the publisher's site can verify that it is peer-reviewed.

Many databases have an option for limiting to peer-reviewed journals.  Look for options on the advanced search screen such as:

  • Peer reviewed
  • Academic journals
  • Scholarly journals

Note that sometimes more than one of these options can appear; journals can be scholarly without being peer-reviewed.

Peer-reviewed journals do contain information that is itself not peer-reviewed, such as editorials, opinions, or letters. Remember to evaluate your specific article, not just the journal. 

Do I have to read the whole thing?

Reading and critiquing scholarly research articles is a skill developed with time and practice. As you read more within your discipline you'll likely discover patterns in the structure of the journal articles.  You'll also get more experienced at differentiating between good and bad articles.

Journal articles, particularly research articles in the sciences and social sciences, tend to follow a very similar structure.  You may see some or all of the following headings:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction or Background
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References

Don't feel that you have to read research articles from beginning to end. The best strategy may be to read the abstract and then skip to the conclusions section, in order to get a feel for the main points of the article.

While journal articles in the humanities don't usually follow the structure noted above, you will at a minimum still see an Introduction and a References or Works Cited list.

The following questions may be helpful in determining whether you are reading a good scholarly article:

  • Is the research question clearly stated (in a humanities paper, this will be the thesis statement)? Does it seem significant?
  • Has the new research been framed well within the existing research? In other words, is there evidence of a literature review and does it seem complete?
  • Is the researcher's methodology clearly laid out? Does it seem appropriate for the research problem?
  • Do the researcher's conclusions make sense, given the results reported or the evidence presented? Are there any inconsistencies? Any apparent biases in the data or evidence?
  • Have limitations to the research or argument been identified?
  • Does the References list appear accurate and complete?