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MLA Citation Style 9th Edition

This guide will help you cite sources in MLA Citation Style 9th Edition.

Print Book

Citation Recipe

  1. Author.     Berman, Ronald.
  2. Title of source.     Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and the Twenties.    
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publishers,     UP of Alabama,
  8. Publication date,     2001.
  9. Location.

Example

In-Text Citation

(Berman 146-55)

Works Cited

Berman, Ronald. Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and the Twenties. UP of Alabama, 2001.

Tips

Check How to Build a Citation to learn how to find and format individual elements of the citation.
If an element is not present (e.g., other contributors), leave it out.

Essay, Story, or Poem that is Part of a Collection

Citation Recipe

  1. Author.    Bordo, Susan.
  2. Title of source.     "The Moral Content of Nabokov's Lolita."
  3. Title of container,     Aesthetic Subjects,
  4. Other contributors,     edited by Pamela R. Matthews and David McWhirter,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publishers,    U of Minnesota P,
  8. Publication date,    2003,
  9. Location.     pp. 125-52.

Example

In-Text Citation

(Bordo 127) 

Works Cited

Bordo, Susan. "The Moral Content of Nabokov's Lolita." Aesthetic Subjects, edited by Pamela R. Matthews and David McWhirter, U of Minnesota P, 2003, pp. 125-52.

Tips

Check How to Build a Citation to learn how to find and format individual elements of the citation.
If an element is not present (e.g., version), leave it out.

Entry in a Reference Work (e.g. Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)

In this case, the citation is for an entry in an online reference without an individual author.  The reference work was found within Credo Reference.

Citation Recipe

  1. Author.    
  2. Title of source.      "Brain."
  3. Title of container,    Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology,
  4. Other contributors,    edited by Jacqueline L. Longe, 
  5. Version,          3rd ed., 
  6. Number,
  7. Publishers,   Gale,
  8. Publication date,   2016,
  9. Location.  

Container 2 (in this case the database containing the reference work):

  1. Title of container,     Credo Reference,
  2. Other contributors,    
  3. Version,
  4. Number,
  5. Publishers, 
  6. Publication date,  
  7. Location.     search-credoreference-com.ezproxy.ardc.talonline.ca/content/entry/galegp/brain/0.

Example

In-Text Citation

("Brain" par. 1)

Works Cited

"Brain." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, edited by Jacqueline L. Longe, 3rd ed., Gale, 2016. Credo Reference, search-credoreference-com.ezproxy.ardc.talonline.ca/content/entry/galegp/brain/0.

Tips

Check How to Build a Citation to learn how to find and format individual elements of the citation.
If an element is not present (e.g., other contributors), leave it out.

E-Book

In this case, the e-book is a title that was originally published in print and then later made available online through another service. To reflect this in a citation, you will include information about the e-book service in a second container description (in this case, Ebook Central).

Citation Recipe

  1. Author.    Kanneh, Kadiatu.
  2. Title of source.      African Identities: Race, Nation and Culture in Ethnography, Pan-Africanism, and Black Literatures.
  3. Title of container,    
  4. Other contributors,    
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publishers,   Routledge,
  8. Publication date,   1998,
  9. Location.  

Container 2 (in this case the e-book platform that hosts the e-book):

  1. Title of container,     Ebook Central,
  2. Other contributors,    
  3. Version,
  4. Number,
  5. Publishers, 
  6. Publication date,  
  7. Location.     ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rdc/detail.action?docID=165188.

Example

In-Text Citation

(Kanneh 76)

Works Cited

Kanneh, Kadiatu. African Identities: Race, Nation and Culture in Ethnography, Pan-Africanism, and Black Literatures. Routledge, 1998. Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rdc/detail.action?docID=165188.

Tips

Check How to Build a Citation to learn how to find and format individual elements of the citation.
If an element is not present (e.g., other contributors), leave it out.