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Chicago Citation Style 17th Edition

This guide will help you cite sources in Chicago Citation Style 17th Edition.

Bibliography - General Guidelines

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in The Chicago Manual (17th ed.) 


Double-space your entire paper, including notes and Bibliography (p. 66).

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to double-space your paper:
       Microsoft Word - Adjust Indents and Spacing

Hanging Indent 

For your Bibliography, begin each entry on a new line and use a hanging indent (p. 71). 

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to create a hanging indent:
       Microsoft Word - Adjust Indents and Spacing
       Google Docs - Add a Hanging (Left) Indent


Arrange your Bibliography in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the author, or by title or keyword if there is no author (p. 777).


Capitalize first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words (p. 792).


Titles and subtitles of books and periodicals are italicized (p. 791).

Author's Name(s)

Author's names are given as they appear on the title page (p. 785). In the Bibliography, invert the order of the first author's names (e.g. last name first) so that they will appear correctly in the alphabetical list. Subsequent authors and editors may be written normally, without inverting the first and last name (p. 786).  

E.g. Elms, Jack, and Lauren D. Curtis. 

If the Bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), give the author(s) name(s) in the first entry only. In subsequent entries, use three hyphens (Chicago refers to this as "3-em dashes") in place of the names, followed by a period. Arrange the works in alphabetical order by title (pp. 782-84).

Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
---. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.


What if there is no author?

If there is no author, begin the entry with the title, ignoring any introductory articles (e.g. The, A, An) (p. 787).


When the Bibliography entry includes a URL that must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon of double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equal sign or an ampersand (p. 750).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a DOI is included on your source, include it in your citation, rather than a URL, as it is more specific (p. 746).


The bibliography is placed at the end of your paper (p. 777).