The Chicago Manual of Style is often used to document sources for papers in the humanities (eg. history, fine arts, and political science). This guide is based on the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), published in 2017.
Note: The Chicago Manual uses two styles of citation. This guide is intended as a guideline for the "Notes and Bibliography" style only.
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.
In all types of research and scholarly writing, it is important to cite your sources in order to:
Readers may want to locate a source you have cited, to verify the information or to learn more about the topic. A proper citation includes all of the information for a reader to locate a source.
Scholarly writing is grounded in research. Citations allow you to demonstrate that your position is thoroughly researched.
Giving proper credit to those whose ideas, words, and thoughts you use is not only respectful to those authors, but also helps you avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is "the submission by a student of the writings, ideas or data of another individual as the student’s own in any essay or assignment. Avoid the consequences of plagiarism by giving proper references to your sources.” (from the RDC Academic Terminology Glossary)
Citation tools can help quickly generate and manage your citations. Remember to double-check citations for accuracy. Some tools to try:
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