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American Psychological Association (APA) style is commonly used for citing references in science and social science courses, such as Nursing, Psychology, Education, and Social Work.
This guide is based on the APA Manual (6th ed.), published in 2009.
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.
Parenthetical References (p. 170)
Double-Spaced (pp. 171, 180)
Recommended Typeface (p. 228)
Page Numbers and Running Head (p. 230)
Tip: Use the "header" function on your word processor to set up the page numbers and running head. Since the running head format is different on the title page than the subsequent pages, you will need to choose "different first page" within your word processor header function.
In all types of research and scholarly writing, it is important to cite your sources in order to:
Readers may want to locate the source you have cited, to verify the information or to learn more about the topic. A proper citation includes all of the information for readers to locate the source.
Scholarly writing is grounded in research. Citations strengthen your argument by demonstrating that your position is thoroughly researched.
Giving proper credit to those whose ideas, words, and thoughts you use is not only respectful to those authors, but also helps you avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious academic offense, usually consisting of "the submission by a student of the writings, ideas or data of another individual as the student’s own in any essay or assignment. Avoid the consequences of plagiarism by giving proper references to your sources” (from the RDC Academic Terminology Glossary).
Citation tools can help quickly generate and manage your citations. Remember to double-check citations for accuracy. Some tools to try:
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